Design can no longer be seen as a solitary endeavor where a designer, through pure force of talent, improves a product or service, and then hands it off to a community of use. My research empirically examines design practices and develops technology to support creative individuals, groups, and crowds. We seek to deepen our understanding of how the creative process works, to improve design practice for teams, and to teach design effectively to larger audience. See more…

At a time of unprecedented challenges facing society, we need to develop strategies for collective innovation where we engage many diverse stakeholders to generate ideas, provide feedback, and co-create better, more inclusive outcomes. Design can no longer be seen as a solitary endeavor where a designer, through pure force of talent, improves a product or service, and then hands it off to a community of use.

Our work combines research in design thinking, crowdsourcing, and decision making to create novel social technologies that motivate participation and organize people around complex problems in civics, healthcare, climate change, and education. Our research investigates the underlying social and cognitive mechanisms that impact how different groups — from local communities, to classrooms of students, to online crowds — tackle complex problems creatively and collaboratively.

Technology has not only transformed how we share information, but how we collaborate to solve complex problems. As part of our research process in our lab, we observe how groups appropriate technology to serve their goals, we conceptually model collaborative processes, and we design and test novel systems that explore opportunities for how people can work together. Ultimately, our research seeks to deepen our understanding of how the creative process works, to improve design practice for teams, and to teach design more effectively to larger audiences. See less

Publications

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A Framework for Open Civic Design: Integrating Public Participation, Crowdsourcing, and Design Thinking. Brandon Reynante, Narges Mahyar, and Steven P. Dow. To appear in the ACM Journal for Digital Government: Research and Practice, 2021.

Framing Creative Work: Helping Novices Frame Better Problems through Interactive Scaffolding. Stephen MacNeil, Zijian Ding, Kexin Quan, Thomas Parashos, and Steven P. Dow. In ACM Conference on Creativity and Cognition (C&C’21), 2021. Video

Finding Place in a Design Space: Challenges for Supporting Community Design Efforts at Scale. Stephen MacNeil, Zijian Ding, Ashley Boone, Bryce Grubbs, and Steven P. Dow. In ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing (CSCW’21), 2021.

ProtoTeams: Supporting Team Dating in Co-Located Settings. Gustavo Umbelino, Matin Yarmand, Samual Blake, Vivian Ta, Amy Lou, and Steven P. Dow. In ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing (CSCW’20), 2020. Video

Rare, but Valuable: Understanding Data-centered Talk in News Website Comment Sections. Brian McInnis, Lu Sun, Jungwon Shin, and Steven P. Dow In ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing (CSCW’20), 2020.

Critique Me: Exploring How Creators Publicly Request Feedback in an Online Critique Community. Ruijia Cheng, Ziwen Zeng, Maysnow Liu, and Steven P. Dow. In ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing (CSCW’20), 2020.

Schema and Metadata Guide the Collective Generation of Relevant and Diverse Work. Xiaotong (Tone) Xu, Judy Fan, and Steven P. Dow. In AAAI Conference on Human Computation and Crowdsourcing (HCOMP’20), 2020.

Designing Interactive Scaffolds to Encourage Reflection on Peer Feedback. Amy Cook, Steven P. Dow, and Jessica Hammer. In ACM Conference on Designing Interactive Systems (DIS’20), 2020.

The Civic Data Deluge: Understanding the Challenges of Analyzing Large-Scale Community Input. Narges Mahyar, Diana V. Nguyen, Maggie Chan, Jiayi Zheng, and Steven P. Dow. In ACM Conference on Designing Interactive Systems (DIS’19), 2019.

Structuring Online Dyads: Explanations Improve Creativity, Chats lead to Convergence. Faez Ahmed, Nischal Reddy Chandra, Mark Fuge, and Steven P. Dow. In ACM SIGCHI Conf on Creativity and Cognition (C&C’19), 2019.

How Guiding Questions Facilitate Feedback Exchange in Project-Based Learning. Amy Cook, Jessica Hammer, Salma Elsayed-Ali, and Steven P. Dow. In ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI’19), 2019.

How Features of a Civic Design Competition Influences the Collective Understanding of a Problem. Brian McInnis, Xiaotong (Tone) Xu, and Steven P. Dow. In ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing (CSCW’18), 2018.

Supporting Virtual Team Formation through Community-Wide Deliberation. Miaomiao Wen, Keith Maki, Steven P Dow, James D. Herbsleb, and Carolyn Rose. In ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing (CSCW’18), 2018.

The Problem Solver and The Artisan Designer: Strategies for Utilizing Design Idea Archives. Nanna Inie, Allison Endo, Steven P. Dow, and Peter Dalsgaard. In ACM Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (NordiCHI’18), 2018.

Designing Idea Management Tools: Three Challenges. Nanna Inie, Steven P. Dow, and Peter Dalsgaard. In Proceedings of International Conference on Design Research Society (DRS’18), 2018.

CommunityCrit: Inviting the Public to Improve and Evaluate Urban Design Ideas through Micro-Activities. Narges Mahyar, Michael R. James, Michelle M. Ng, Reginald A. Wu, Steven P. Dow. In ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI’18), 2018.

Paragon: An Online Gallery for Enhancing Design Feedback with Visual Examples. Hyeonsu B. Kang, Gabriel Amoako, Neil Sengupta, Steven P. Dow. In ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI’18), 2018.

Do the Best Design Ideas (Really) Come from Conceptually Distant Sources. Joel Chan, Steven P. Dow, Christian D. Schunn. In Engineering a Better Future: Interplay between Engineering, Social Sciences, and Innovation, Eswaran Subrahmanian, Toluwalogo Odumosu, Jeffrey Y. Tsao, eds., Springer, pp 111-139, 2018.

ConsensUs: Supporting Multi-Criteria Group Decisions by Visualizing Points of Disagreement. Weichen Liu, Sijia Xiao, Jacob T. Browne, Ming Yang, and Steven P. Dow. In Journal of Social Computing, Volume 1, Issue 1, Article No. 4, 2018.

Impact of Collaborative Team Peer Review on the Quality of Feedback in Engineering Design Projects. Mahender Mandala, Christian Schunn, Steven P. Dow, Mary Goldberg, Jon Pearlman, William Clark, and Irene Mena. In International Journal of Engineering Education, Volume 34, No. 4, pp 1299-1313, 2018.

Uncovering the Practices, Challenges, and Incentives for Engineering Design Faculty. Mahender Mandala, Christian Schunn, Steven P. Dow, Mary Goldberg, and Jon Pearlman. In International of Engineering Education, Volume 34, No. 4, pp 1314-1324, 2018.

Towards Designing Technology for Classroom Role-Play. Amy Shannon Cook, Steven P Dow, and Jessica Hammer. In Proceedings of the Annual Symposium on Computer-Human Interaction in Play, 2017.

Semantically Far Inspirations Considered Harmful? Accounting for Cognitive States in Collaborative Ideation. Joel Chan, Pao Siangliulue, Denisa Qori McDonald, Ruixue Liu, Reza Moradinezhad, Safa Aman, Erin T. Solovey, Krzysztof Z. Gajos, Steven P. Dow. In ACM SIGCHI Conf on Creativity and Cognition (C&C’17), 2017.

Crowdboard: Augmenting In-Person Idea Generation with Real-Time Crowds. Salvatore Andolina, Hendrik Schneider, Joel Chan, Khalil Klouche, Giulio Jacucci, Steven P. Dow. In ACM SIGCHI Conf on Creativity and Cognition (C&C’17), 2017.

Listen to Others, Listen to Yourself: Combining Feedback Review and Reflection to Improve Iterative Design. Yu-Chun Grace Yen, Steven P. Dow, Elizabeth Gerber, Brian P. Bailey. In ACM SIGCHI Conf on Creativity and Cognition (C&C’17), 2017.

Critique Style Guide: Improving Crowdsourced Design Feedback with a Natural Language Model. Markus Krause, Tom Garncarz, JiaoJiao Song, Elizabeth M. Gerber, Brian P. Bailey, and Steven P. Dow. In Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI’17), 2017.

Better Organization or a Source of Distraction? Introducing Digital Peer Feedback to a Paper-Based Classroom. Amy Shannon, Alex Sciuto, Danielle Hu, Steven P. Dow, and Jessica Hammer. In Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI’17), 2017.

Online Feedback Exchange: A Framework for Understanding the Socio-Psychological Factors. Eureka Foong, Steven P. Dow, Brian P. Bailey, Elizabeth M. Gerber. In Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI’17), 2017.

From in the Class or in the Wild? Peers Provide Better Design Feedback Than External Crowds. Helen Wauck, Yu-Chun Yen, Wai-Tat Fu, Elizabeth Gerber, Steven P. Dow, Brian P. Bailey. In Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI’17), 2017.

Team Dating Leads to Better Online Ad Hoc Collaborations. Ioanna Lykourentzou, Robert E. Kraut, and Steven P. Dow. In ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing (CSCW’17), 2017.

Fruitful Feedback: Positive Affective Language and Source Anonymity Improve Critique Reception and Work Outcomes. Mary Duyen Nguyen, Tom Garncarz, Felicia Ng, Laura Dabbish, and Steven P. Dow. In ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing (CSCW’17), 2017.

IdeaHound: improving large-scale collaborative ideation with crowd-powered real-time semantic modeling. Pao Siangliulue, Joel Chan, Steven P. Dow, and Krzysztof Z. Gajos. In Proceedings of User Interface Software and Technology (UIST’16), 2016.

PeerPresents: A Web-Based System for In-Class Peer Feedback during Student Presentations. Amy Shannon, Jessica Hammer, Hassler Thurston, Natalie Diehl, and Steven P. Dow. In Conference on Designing Interactive Systems (DIS’16), 2016.

Social Network, Web Forum, or Task Market?: Comparing Different Crowd Genres for Design Feedback Exchange. Yu-Chu (Grace) Yen, Steven P. Dow, Elizabeth Gerber, and Brian P. Bailey. In ACM Conference on Designing Interactive Systems (DIS’16), 2016.

Comparing Different Sensemaking Approaches for Large-Scale Ideation. Joel Chan, Steven Dang, and Steven P. Dow. In Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI’16), 2016.

WearWrite: Crowd-Assisted Writing from Smartwatches. Michael Nebeling, Alexandra To, Anhong Guo, Adrian de Freitas, Jaime Teevan, Steven P. Dow, and Jeffrey P. Bigham. In Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI’16), 2016.

Improving Crowd Innovation with Expert Facilitation. Joel Chan, Steven Dang, and Steven P. Dow. In ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing (CSCW’16), 2016.

Almost an Expert: The Effects of Rubrics and Expertise on Perceived Value of Crowdsourced Design Critiques. Alvin Yuan, Kurt Luther, Sophie Vennix, Markus Krause, Steven P. Dow, and Björn Hartmann. In ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing (CSCW’16), 2016.

Personality Matters: Balancing for Personality Types Leads to Better Outcomes for Crowd Teams. Ioanna Lykourentzou, Angeliki Antoniou, and Steven P. Dow. In ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing (CSCW’16), 2016. (Honorable Mention Award)

Transactivity as a Predictor of Future Collaborative Knowledge Integration in Team-Based Learning in Online Courses. Miaomiao Wen, Keith Maki, Xu Wang, Steven P Dow, James Herbsleb and Carolyn Rose. In International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM’16), 2016.

Using Anonymity and Communal Efforts to Improve Quality of Crowdsourced Feedback. Julie Hui, Amos Glenn, Rachel Jue, Elizabeth Gerber, and Steven P. Dow. In AAAI Conference on Human Computation and Crowdsourcing (HCOMP’15), 2015.

Crowdlines: Supporting Synthesis of Diverse Information Sources through Crowdsourced Outlines. Kurt Luther, Nathan Hahn, Steven P. Dow, and Aniket Kittur. In AAAI Conference on Human Computation and Crowdsourcing (HCOMP’15), 2015.

Providing Timely Examples Improves the Quantity and Quality of Generated Ideas. Pao Siangliulue, Joel Chan, Krzysztof Z. Gajos, and Steven P. Dow. In ACM SIGCHI Conf on Creativity and Cognition, Glasgow, UK, 2015. (Nominated for Best Contribution to Creative Communication).

Exploring Privacy and Accuracy Trade-Offs in Crowdsourced Behavioral Video Coding. Walter S. Lasecki, Mitchell Gordon, Winnie Leung, Ellen Lim, Jeffrey P. Bigham and Steven P. Dow. In Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI’15), 2015.

Structuring, Aggregating, and Evaluating Crowdsourced Design Critique. Kurt Luther, Jari-lee Tolentino, Wei Wu, Amy Pavel, Brian P. Bailey, Maneesh Agrawala, Björn Hartmann, and Steven P. Dow. In ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing (CSCW’15), 2015.

Exiting the Design Studio: Leveraging Online Participants for Early-Stage Design Feedback. Xiaojuan Ma, Yu Li, Jodi Forlizzi, and Steven P. Dow. In ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing (CSCW’15), 2015.

Toward Collaborative Ideation at Scale: Leveraging Ideas from Others to Generate More Creative and Diverse Ideas. Pao Siangliulue, Kenneth C. Arnold, Krzysztof Z. Gajos, and Steven P. Dow. In ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing (CSCW’15), 2015.

A Classroom Study of Using Crowd Feedback in the Iterative Design Process. Anbang Xu, Huaming Rao, Steven P. Dow, and Brian P. Bailey. ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing (CSCW’15), 2015.

Do The Best Design Ideas (Really) Come From Conceptually Distant Sources Of Inspiration? Joel Chan, Steven P. Dow, and Christian D. Schunn. In Journal of Design Studies, Volume 36, January 2015, pg 31-58. (Best Paper Award)

Glance: Rapidly Coding Behavioral Video with the Crowd. Walter S. Lasecki, Mitchell Gordon, Danai Koutra, Malte F. Jung, Steven P. Dow, and Jeffrey P. Bigham. In Conference on User Interface Software and Technology (UIST’14), 2014. Video

Attendee-Sourcing: Exploring The Design Space of Community-Informed Conference Scheduling. Anant Bhardwaj, Juho Kim, Steven P. Dow, David Karger, Sam Madden, Rob Miller, and Haoqi Zhang. AAAI Conference on Human Computation and Crowdsourcing (HCOMP’14), 2014.

Crowd-Based Design Activities: Helping Students Connect with Users Online. Julie Hui, Elizabeth M. Gerber, and Steven P. Dow. In Conference on Designing Interactive Systems (DIS’14), 2014.

Supporting the Synthesis of Information in Design Teams. Raja Gumienny, Steven P. Dow, and Christoph Meinel. In Conference on Designing Interactive Systems (DIS’14), 2014.

Frenzy: Collaborative Data Organization for Creating Conference Sessions. Lydia Chilton, Juho Kim, Paul André, Felicia Cordeiro, James A. Landay, Daniel S. Weld, Steven P. Dow, Robert C. Miller, and Haoqi Zhang. Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI’14), 2014. (Honorable Mention Award)

Generating Implications for Design through Design Research. Corina Sas, Steve Whittaker, Steven P. Dow, Jodi Forlizzi, and John Zimmerman. Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI’14), 2014.

Crowd Synthesis: Extracting Categories and Clusters from Complex Data. Paul André, Niki Kittur, and Steven P. Dow. ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW’14), 2014.

Reviewing versus Doing: Learning and Performance in Crowd Assessment. Haiyi Zhu, Steven P. Dow, Robert E. Kraut, and Niki Kittur. In ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW’14), 2014.

Community Clustering: Leveraging an Academic Crowd To Form Coherent Conference Sessions. Paul André, Haoqi Zhang, Juho Kim, Lydia Chilton, Steven P. Dow and Rob Miller. AAAI Conference on Human Computation and Crowdsourcing (HCOMP’13), 2013. (Notable Paper Award) Video

Cobi: A Community-Informed Conference Scheduling Tool. Juho Kim, Haoqi Zhang, Paul André, Lydia B. Chilton, Wendy Mackay, Michel Beaudouin-Lafon, Robert C. Miller, and Steven P. Dow. In Conference on User Interface Software and Technology (UIST’13), 2013. Video

Investigating the Solution Space of an Open-Ended Educational Game Using Conceptual Feature Extraction. Erik Harpstead, Christopher J. MacLellan, Kenneth R. Koedinger, Vincent Aleven, Steven P. Dow, and Brad A. Myers. In Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM’13), 2013.

A Pilot Study of Using Crowds in the Classroom. Steven P. Dow, Liz Gerber, and Audris Wong. In Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI’13), Paris, France, 2013.

Let’s Get Together: The Formation and Success of Online Creative Collaborations. Burr Settles & Steven P. Dow. In Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI’13), Paris, France, 2013. Video

Beanstalk: A Unity Game Addressing Balance Principles, Socio-Emotional Learning and Scientific Inquiry. Michael G. Christel, Scott Stevens, Matt Champer, John Balash, Sean Brice, Bryan Maher, Danny Hausmann, Nora Bastida, Chandana Bhargava, Weiwei Huo, Xun Zhang, Samantha Collier, Vincent Aleven, Kenneth R. Koedinger, Steven P. Dow, Carolyn Rosé, Jonathan Sewell, Mitra Fathollahpour, Chris Reid, Julia Brynn Flynn, Amos Glenn, Erik Harpstead, and Brad A. Myers. In IEEE International Games Innovation Conference (IGIC’13), 2013.

Projection, Place and Point-of-View in Research through Design. Steven P. Dow, Wendy Ju, and Wendy Mackay. In The SAGE Handbook of Technology Research, Price, S., Jewitt, C., and Brown, B., eds., Sage Publishing, 2013.

Early and Repeated Exposure to Examples Improves Creative Work. Chinmay Kulkarni, Steven P. Dow, and Scott R. Klemmer. In Cognitive Science Society (CogSci’12), Sapporo, Japan, 2012.

Shepherding the Crowd Yields Better Work. Steven P. Dow, Anand Kulkarni, Scott R. Klemmer, and Björn Hartmann. In Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW’12), Seattle, WA, 2012.

Crowdsourcing in HCI Research. Serge Egelman, Ed H. Chi, and Steven P. Dow. In Ways of Knowing HCI, Olsen, J. and Kellogg, W., eds., Springer, 2012.

Prototyping Dynamics: Sharing Multiple Designs Improves Exploration, Group Rapport, and Results. Steven P. Dow, Julie Fortuna, Dan Schwartz, Beth Altringer, Daniel L. Schwartz, and Scott R. Klemmer. In Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI’11), Vancouver, BC, CAN, 2011.

Families and Services: Understanding Opportunities for Co-Production of Value in Service Design. Jodi Forlizzi, Steven P. Dow, and John Zimmerman. In Conference on Designing Pleasurable Products and Interfaces (DPPI’11), Milan, Italy, 2011.

Enhancing and evaluating users’ social experience with a mobile phone guide applied to cultural heritage. Youngjung Suh, Choonsung Shin, Woontack Woo, Steven P. Dow, and Blair MacIntyre. In Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, Aug, 2011.

Eliza meets the Wizard–of–Oz: Blending Machine and Human Control of Embodied Characters. Steven P. Dow, Manish Mehta, Blair MacIntyre, and Michael Mateas. In Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI’10), Atlanta, GA, USA, 2010.

Playing with Words: from Intuition to Evaluation of Game Dialogue Interfaces. Serdar Sali, Noah Wardip-Fruin, Steven P. Dow, Michael Mateas, Sri Kurniawan, Aaron A. Reed, and Ronald Liu. In ACM International Conference On The Foundations Of Digital Games, Monterey, CA, USA, 2010.

Parallel Prototyping Leads to Better Design Results, More Divergence, and Increased Self-Efficacy. Steven P. Dow, Alana Glassco, Jonathan Kass, Melissa Schwarz, Daniel L. Schwartz, Scott R. Klemmer. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 17(4), 2010.

The Efficacy of Prototyping Under Time Constraints. Steven P. Dow, Kate Heddleston, and Scott R. Klemmer. In ACM SIGCHI Conf on Creativity and Cognition, Berkeley, CA, USA, 2009.

Agency Reconsidered. Noah Wardrip-Fruin, Michael Mateas, Steven P. Dow, and Serdar Sali. In Conference on Digital Games Research (DiGRA’09), London, UK, 2009.

Styles of Play in Immersive and Interactive Story: Case Studies from a Gallery Installation of AR Façade. Steven P. Dow, Blair MacIntyre, and Michael Mateas. In ACM SIGCHI Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment (ACE’08), Yokohama, Japan, 2008.

Presence and Engagement in an Interactive Drama. Steven P. Dow, Manish Mehta, Ellie Harmon, Blair MacIntyre, and Michael Mateas. In ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI’07), San Jose, CA, USA, 2007.

Evaluating a Conversation-centered Interactive Drama. Manish Mehta, Steven P. Dow, Michael Mateas, and Blair MacIntyre. In Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems (AAMAS’07), 2007.

Supporting Early Design Activities for AR Experiences. Maribeth Gandy, Blair MacIntyre, Steven P. Dow, and Jay D. Bolter. In Emerging Technologies of Augmented Reality: Interfaces and Design, Haller, M., Billinghurst, M. and Thomas, B., eds., Idea Group Publishing, 2007.

Initial Lessons from ARFaçade, An Interactive Augmented Reality Drama. Steven P. Dow, Manish Mehta, Annie Lausier, Blair MacIntyre, and Michael Mateas. In ACM SIGCHI Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment (ACE’06), Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2006. (Outstanding Paper Award)

External Representations in Ubiquitous Computing Design and the Implications for Authoring Tools. Steven P. Dow, T. Scott Saponas, Yang Li, and James A. Landay. In Conference on Designing Interactive Systems (DIS’06), State College, PA, USA, June 26-28, 2006.

Wizard of Oz Support throughout an Iterative Design Process. Steven P. Dow, Blair MacIntyre, Jaemin Lee, Christopher Oezbek, Jay D. Bolter, and Maribeth Gandy. In IEEE Pervasive Computing (Special Issue on Rapid Prototyping), November, 2005.

Exploring Spatial Narratives and Mixed Reality Experiences in Oakland Cemetery. Steven P. Dow, Jaemin Lee, Christopher Oezbek, Blair MacIntyre, Jay D. Bolter, and Maribeth Gandy. In ACM SIGCHI Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment (ACE’05), Valencia, Spain, June, 2005.

DART: A Toolkit for Rapid Design Exploration of Augmented Reality Experiences. Blair MacIntyre, Maribeth Gandy, Steven P. Dow, and Jay D. Bolter. In Proceedings of User Interface Software and Technology (UIST’04), Sante Fe, NM, USA., October 24-27, 2004. (Selected for “Reprise of UIST” at SIGGRAPH 2005, only three papers earn this distinction)

The Design and Testing of a Force Feedback Dental Simulator. Geb Thomas, Lynn Johnson, Steven P. Dow, and Clark Stanford. In the Journal of Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, 2001, pp 53-64.

An Initial Evaluation of the Iowa Dental Surgical Simulator. Lynn Johnson, Geb Thomas, Steven P. Dow, and Clark Stanford. In the Journal of Dental Education, December 2000, Vol. 64, pp 847 – 853.

Signal Detection Performance with a Haptic Device. Steven P. Dow, Geb Thomas, and Lynn Johnson. In Proceedings of Human Factors and Ergonomics Conference (HFES’99), Houston, TX, USA, Sept 27-Oct 1, 1999.

Improving the Visual Experience for Mobile Robotics. Geb Thomas, William Robinson, and Steven P. Dow. In Proceedings of the Iowa Space Grant Conference, 1997.